What controls hydrothermal plume transport of iron over 4000 km in the deep Pacific Ocean?

The striking extension of the dissolved iron and manganese plumes over more than 4000 km from their hydrothermal sources along the US GEOTRACES East Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) cruise (GP16) has challenged our understanding of these element cycles (Resing et al., 2015 see GEOTRACES science highlight).

Fitzsimmons and co-workers (2017, see reference below) analysed the particulate iron and manganese (Mn) in the same plume and showed that they also exceed background concentrations, even 4,000 km from the vent source, despite anticipated gravitational settling losses. Both dissolved and particulate Fe plumes deepen by more than 350 m relative to the conservative helium-3 (3He) one, while the Mn plumes do not show such descent.

Based on Fe speciation and isotope data, the authors suggest that dissolved iron fluxes and geospatial positioning may depend on the balance between stabilization in the dissolved phase by organic ligands and the reversibility of exchange onto sinking particles.

17 Fitzsimmons l

Figure:  Interpolated concentrations and station map along the US GEOTRACES EPZT (GP16) section. a, Map of the station locations (colours corresponds to bathymetry; green hues shallower) b, Excess 3He concentrations in fmol kg−1. c, Dissolved Fe concentrations (<0.2 µm, in nM). d, Dissolved Mn concentrations (<0.2 µm, in nM). e, Particulate Fe (>0.45µm, in nM). f, Particulate Mn (>0.45µm, in pM). The black reference line at 2,500m in each panel highlights  the deepening of the Fe plumes. Ocean Data View was used to carry out the simulations. Click here to view the figure larger.


Fitzsimmons, J. N., John, S. G., Marsay, C. M., Hoffman, C. L., Nicholas, S. L., Toner, B. M., German, C. R., Sherrell, R. M. (2017). Iron persistence in a distal hydrothermal plume supported by dissolved-particulate exchange. Nature Geoscience. DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2900

Resing, J. A., Sedwick, P. N., German, C. R., Jenkins, W. J., Moffett, J. W., Sohst, B. M., & Tagliabue, A. (2015). Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean. Nature, 523(7559), 200–203. DOI: 10.1038/nature14577

Latest highlights

Science Highlights

Spatial and temporal variability of bioactive trace metals, speciation and organic metal-binding ligands in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

Mellett and Buck present the concentrations of bioactive trace metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Ni, Cd, and Pb), Fe-and Cu-binding organic ligands, and electroactive Fe-binding humic substances in the eastern Gulf of Mexico.


Science Highlights

Thorium-Protactinium fate across the tropical Atlantic Ocean: what reveals the water column-sediment coupling

Twenty seawater profiles and twenty core-top 231-protactinium and 230-thorium analyses were realised by Ng and colleagues along five depth transects across the northern tropical Atlantic open ocean.


Science Highlights

Constraining Oceanic Copper Cycling through Artificial Intelligence and Ocean Circulation Inverse Model

Using available observations of dissolved copper, artificial neural networks, and an ocean circulation inverse model, authors calculated a global estimate of the 3-dimensional distribution and cycling of dissolved copper in the ocean.


Science Highlights

Particulate rare earth elements distributions, processes and characterisation of nepheloids in the North Atlantic

Lagarde et al. realised the first basin scale section of particulate rare earth elements concentrations across the North Atlantic Ocean.